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Essay is a brief analytical review or explanatory, interpretative study of a topic or problem.

Common Essay Types:

  • A free essay – the author freely expresses his opinion on a topic or question of his own volition.
  • Argumented essay.
  • Essays for writing:
  • Extensive and profound knowledge.
  • Ability to analyze, select the necessary facts and arguments.
  • Ability to plan and logically organize the material.
  • Ability to make reasoned judgments and draw conclusions.


The reasoned essay is usually written when it is necessary to approve or deny a statement. In this essay, the statement can:

  • Reasonably agree
  • Reasonably disagree
  • Develop the problem further

You have to defend your chosen position with 3 arguments:

  • The argument is the weakest.
  • The argument is moderate.
  • The argument is the most powerful.

Each argument should be based on at least 3 sentences: in the first sentence, the argument should be named, the second and third should be endorsed. In conclusion, the conclusion must be drawn from the thoughts of all 3 arguments.

Reasonably agreeing:

  • It is necessary to justify the given statement to your own knowledge, experience, facts, scientific opinions
  • Possible counter-arguments should be rejected
  • Reasonably disagreeing:
  • The credibility of the allegation must be called into question by the counter-arguments
  • The statement can be accepted, but its limitations must be pointed out
  • Analyze the statement by linking it to scientific knowledge, facts

Developing the problem below:

Additional aspects to be addressed should be specified

It should be pointed out that the statement does not comply with the logic requirements, certain regularities

Typical arguments

1. Factual argument

Fact – a true, unintelligible incident, an event, an experience gained in experience that corresponds to reality. The thesis is substantiated by logically linking it to an indisputable fact. If one uses only one case, this argument is not convincing.

2.Automatic argument

The thesis is based on a well-established, widely accepted authority that has expressed a similar or exactly similar opinion.

3. Normative argument

Normative – one that determines the norm, the standard, the principle or the law. The thesis is substantiated by logically linking it to a general or widely accepted scale of values (norms). Since there are different views in society, regulatory arguments may not be persuasive.

4.Analogical argument

Analogy – a form of conclusion where the similarity of the two features of the two subjects leads to the conclusion that the other features of these subjects are similar. The thesis is substantiated by choosing an example from another area of life.

5.A direct argument

Indirect – one that works or manifests itself in a hidden, invisible way. The thesis is substantiated by trying to prove that the opposing views are erroneous, unrealistic, etc. By using indirect arguments, it seems at first that the thesis is justified, but it is not justified logically and convincingly.

Essay Structure

Introduction. Formulate key questions or problems, outline the main hypothesis, scope and sequence of arguments. Poor introduction destroys any interest in the job, but good attracts attention.

Discussion. You need to combine narration with analysis, showing your ability to think and draw conclusions independently. If quotes are used, they should be short and relevant to the topic, also note from which source they were taken. Quotes usually represent a question but rarely prove it. The judgment is based on evidence. Write short and clear, avoid unnecessary generalization. Don’t use jargon, conversational expressions. Observe spelling.

Conclusion. Give a clear answer to the essay question. The conclusions should be summarized.

Essay Evaluation Criteria:

  • Content – concrete, compelling, relevant, creative, understandable
  • Opinion – clear, consistent
  • Essay layout – logical, coherent, united, fit for purpose, directed to conclusions
  • Layout layout – Structure of different paragraphs, deviations
  • Style – interesting, imaginative, expression consistent with content
  • Structure of sentences – logical, complete, skilful use of different sentence structures (parallelism, contrast, repetition, calls)
  • Lexic – appropriate for the topic, language – accurate, lively, figurative
  • Grammar – Compliance with grammar laws (punctuation, spelling of words)

Post Author: Rosco Hinton

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